Media Pluralism Monitor 2017 results


In 2017, the Media Pluralism Monitor (MPM) has examined 28 European Union Member States as well as three Candidate Countries: Turkey,  and for the first time Serbia and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. The results of this second EU-wide implementation of the MPM show either general stagnation or deterioration in all of the four major areas encompassed by the MPM: Basic protection, Market plurality, Political independence and Social inclusiveness, and they confirm that no country analysed is free from risks to media pluralism. Download the MPM2017 Press Release.


Country Reports


AustriaBelgiumBulgariaCroatiaCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkEstoniaFinlandFranceGermanyGreeceHungaryIrelandItalyLuxembourgLatviaLithuaniaMaltaMacedoniaNetherlandsPortugalPolandRomaniaSerbiaSpainSwedenSloveniaSlovakiaTurkeyUnited


In the Basic Protection area, the MPM assesses the fundamental factors which must be in place in a plural and democratic society, namely the existence and effectiveness of the implementation of regulatory mechanisms to safeguard freedom of expression and the right to seek, receive and impart information; the status of journalists in each country; the independence and effectiveness of the media authority; the universal reach of traditional media and access to the Internet.

In the Market Plurality area, the MPM assesses the risks to media pluralism linked to lack of transparency and concentration of media ownership, commercial and owner influence over editorial content, and the economic conditions in which the media operate (media viability).

Political Independence is assessed using indicators that evaluate the extent of the politicisation of the media system, media organizations, newsrooms, media reporting and the public service media.

The Social Inclusiveness area looks at access to media by various social and cultural groups, such as minorities, local/regional communities, people with disabilities and women. In addition, the Monitor considers media literacy as a precondition for using media effectively, and examines media literacy contexts, as well as the digital skills of the population.


After three rounds of implementation (two pilot implementations and one standard application), the CMPF slightly revised the version of the MPM already implemented in 2016, providing minor refinements to the tool and further improving the quality of the questionnaire, trying to recognize an increased role to the online dimension of media pluralism.

MPM 2017 Country teams

AustriaInstitute for Comparative Media and Communication Studies (CMC)Joseph Seethaler
BelgiumKU LeuvenPeggy Valcke
BulgariaFoundation media democracyOrlin Spassov
CroatiaInstitute for Development and International Relations (IRMO)Paško Bilić
CyprusMedia ConsultantChristophoros Christophorou
Czech republicCharles UniversityVaclav Stetka
DenmarkEUIKasper Netterstrøm
Estonia Media Law ConsultantAndres Kõnno
FinlandUniversity of JyväskyläVille Manninen
FranceScience PoThierry Vedel/Geisel Garcia Grana
GermanyDepartment of Communication Studies and Media Research, LMU MunichThomas Hanitzsch
GreeceELIAMEPEvangelia Psychogiopoulou/ Anna Kandyla
HungaryCEU/CMDSMarius Dragomir/ Attila Batorfy
IrelandDublin City UniversityRoddy Flynn
LatviaRiga Stradins UniversityAnda Rozukalne
LithuaniaVytautas Magnus UniversityAukse Balcytiene
LuxembourgUniversity of LuxembourgRaphael Kies
The NetherlandsMedia ConsultantMara Rossini
PolandUniversity of KrakowBeata Klimkiewicz
PortugalUniversidade Nova de LisboaFrancisco Rui Nunes Cádima
RomaniaMedian Research Centre&CEUMarina Popescu
SlovakiaPan European UniveristyZeljko Martin Sampor
SloveniaUniversity of LubjanaMarko Milosavljevic
SpainUniversitat Ramon LlullPere Masip
SwedenUniversity of GothenburgMathias A. Färdigh
UKUniversity of EdinburghRachael Craufurd Smith, Paolo Cavaliere
FYROMResearch Institute on Social Development – RESISSnezana Trpevska, Igor Micevski
SerbiaUniversity of BelgradeJelena Surculija
TurkeyGalatasaray UniversityYasemin Inceoglu/Ceren Sozeri