Media Pluralism Monitor 2017 results

In 2017, the Media Pluralism Monitor (MPM) has examined 28 European Union Member States as well as three Candidate Countries: Turkey,  and for the first time Serbia and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. The results of this second EU-wide implementation of the MPM show either general stagnation or deterioration in all of the four major areas encompassed by the MPM: Basic protection, Market plurality, Political independence and Social inclusiveness, and they confirm that no country analysed is free from risks to media pluralism. Download the MPM2017 Press Release.


Country Reports


AustriaBelgiumBulgariaCroatiaCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkEstoniaFinlandFranceGermanyGreeceHungaryIrelandItalyLuxembourgLatviaLithuaniaMaltaMacedoniaNetherlandsPortugalPolandRomaniaSerbiaSpainSwedenSloveniaSlovakiaTurkeyUnited Kingdom




In the Basic Protection area, the MPM assesses the fundamental factors which must be in place in a plural and democratic society, namely the existence and effectiveness of the implementation of regulatory mechanisms to safeguard freedom of expression and the right to seek, receive and impart information; the status of journalists in each country; the independence and effectiveness of the media authority; the universal reach of traditional media and access to the Internet.

In the Market Plurality area, the MPM assesses the risks to media pluralism linked to lack of transparency and concentration of media ownership, commercial and owner influence over editorial content, and the economic conditions in which the media operate (media viability).

Political Independence is assessed using indicators that evaluate the extent of the politicisation of the media system, media organizations, newsrooms, media reporting and the public service media.

The Social Inclusiveness area looks at access to media by various social and cultural groups, such as minorities, local/regional communities, people with disabilities and women. In addition, the Monitor considers media literacy as a precondition for using media effectively, and examines media literacy contexts, as well as the digital skills of the population.

After three rounds of implementation (two pilot implementations and one standard application), the CMPF slightly revised the version of the MPM already implemented in 2016, providing minor refinements to the tool and further improving the quality of the questionnaire, trying to recognize an increased role to the online dimension of media pluralism.


MPM 2017 Country teams


Austria Institute for Comparative Media and Communication Studies (CMC) Joseph Seethaler
Belgium KU Leuven Peggy Valcke
Bulgaria Foundation media democracy Orlin Spassov
Croatia Institute for Development and International Relations (IRMO) Paško Bilić
Cyprus Media Consultant Christophoros Christophorou
Czech republic Charles University Vaclav Stetka
Denmark EUI Kasper Netterstrøm
Estonia  Media Law Consultant Andres Kõnno
Finland University of Jyväskylä Ville Manninen
France Science Po Thierry Vedel/Geisel Garcia Grana
Germany Department of Communication Studies and Media Research, LMU Munich Thomas Hanitzsch
Greece ELIAMEP Evangelia Psychogiopoulou/ Anna Kandyla
Hungary CEU/CMDS Marius Dragomir/ Attila Batorfy
Ireland Dublin City University Roddy Flynn
Latvia Riga Stradins University Anda Rozukalne
Lithuania Vytautas Magnus University Aukse Balcytiene
Luxembourg University of Luxembourg Raphael Kies
The Netherlands Media Consultant Mara Rossini
Poland University of Krakow Beata Klimkiewicz
Portugal Universidade Nova de Lisboa Francisco Rui Nunes Cádima
Romania Median Research Centre&CEU Marina Popescu
Slovakia Pan European Univeristy Zeljko Martin Sampor
Slovenia University of Lubjana Marko Milosavljevic
Spain Universitat Ramon Llull Pere Masip
Sweden University of Gothenburg Mathias A. Färdigh
UK University of Edinburgh Rachael Craufurd Smith, Paolo Cavaliere
FYROM Research Institute on Social Development – RESIS Snezana Trpevska, Igor Micevski
Serbia University of Belgrade Jelena Surculija
Turkey Galatasaray University Yasemin Inceoglu/Ceren Sozeri
Italy CMPF
Malta CMPF